Inflammation is your body’s an answer to infection or injury. The can affect many areas of the body and also is a cause of many major diseases, including cancer, ischemic love disease, and autoimmune diseases. Inflammation in the heart causes damage and also can result in serious wellness problems. There room three main types of love inflammation: endocarditis, myocarditis, and also pericarditis. Endocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart’s chambers and also valves. Myocarditis is inflammation the the heart muscle. Pericarditis is inflammation the the tissue that forms a sac approximately the heart. Numerous things cause heart inflammation. Common reasons include viral or bacterial infections and also medical conditions that damage the heart and cause inflammation.You might have various signs and symptoms depending upon the form and severity the the love inflammation that you have. The treatment your physician recommends might depend on even if it is you room diagnosed through inflammation of the lining of her heart or valves, the heart muscle, or the tissue bordering the heart. You might be treated with medicine, procedures, or maybe surgery come treat her condition and also its complications. Complications may encompass an arrhythmia, or rarely often rare heartbeat, and heart failure.Explore this health and wellness Topic to learn much more about the types of love inflammation, the’s role in research and also clinical trials to enhance health, and where come find much more information.

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The types of love inflammation incorporate endocarditis, pericarditis, and also myocarditis. For more information on the structure of the heart and how the works, visit our just how the heart Works wellness Topic.

Endocarditis is inflammation of the within lining the the heart chambers and also valves, or endocardium. Endocarditis is a rare however life-threatening disease. In endocarditis, clumps that bacteria or fungi, along with blood cells, collection on the endocardium. This clumps occur an ext often top top the heart valves than on the heart chambers. Pieces of this clumps have the right to break off and also travel to different parts of the body, prevent blood circulation or dispersing infection.

Myocarditis is an uncommon disease marked by inflammation the the heart muscle, dubbed the myocardium, and other alters to the love muscle cells that might be acute or chronic. Myocarditis deserve to affect little or large sections that the heart muscle, making that harder for the heart to pump blood, i m sorry in turn can lead to love failure.

Pericarditis is a problem in i m sorry the pericardium—the sac neighboring the heart—gets inflamed. This sac is made of two thin class of tissue with a little amount of fluid in between. The fluid keeps the layers native rubbing against each other and causing friction. The pericardium holds the heart in its position in the chest and protects the from infection.

Image that pericarditis. Figure A shows the location of the love in the body and also a normal heart and also pericardium, i beg your pardon is the membrane, or sac, surrounding the heart. The inset image is an enlarged cross-section that the pericardium that shows its 2 layers that tissue and also the little amount of liquid that is normally in between the layers. Figure B shows the heart v pericarditis. The inset photo is one enlarged cross-section that reflects the inflamed and thickened layers of the pericardium.

Depending on exactly how long friend have had actually it, her doctor might categorize pericarditis together acute, subacute, chronic, or recurrent, the latter meaning it is a repeat event.

Heart inflammation deserve to be resulted in by infections, specifically from viruses or bacteria; medicines; or damage to the heart’s tissue or muscle indigenous autoimmune diseases, medicines, eco-friendly factors, or other triggers. The causes of love inflammation may vary depending upon the component of the heart that is affected—the endocardium, the myocardium, or the pericardium.


Viral, bacterial, and also fungal epidemic can reason heart inflammation.

Bacteria space the most common cause of endocarditis, i beg your pardon occurs once bacteria and also blood cells type clumps, typically on the heart valves. In most occurred countries Staphylococcus aureus is the many common kind of bacteria that causes endocarditis. Bacteria can get in the blood during invasive medical measures or intravenous medicine use. Streptococcus bacteria can also cause endocarditis, however this is more common in less developed countries. Pericarditis caused by bacteria is rarely in the joined States and other arisen countries. However, in emerging countries, 70 percent the pericarditis cases are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism that reasons tuberculosis.Fungi are rare causes of myocarditis and pericarditis. Most commonly, fungal endocarditis is brought about by one of two people Candida or Aspergillus. These infections are much more common in immunosuppressed patients, consisting of those who have actually HIV.

How do viruses cause myocarditis?

Viruses may infect the cell of the love tissue. As soon as the virus is in the cell, the virus multiplies and also activates the body’s immune system, top to damage in the love tissue. This initial phase of infection have the right to last weeks come months.

If the viral epidemic lasts for a long time, that can damages the framework and function of the heart muscle and may lead to dilated cardiomyopathy.

Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and also lupus erythematosus may cause pericarditis or myocarditis. Castle can additionally damage the love valves, which can lead to endocarditis.


Medicines can cause side impacts that may result in myocarditis, pericarditis, or both. These medications include:

Antibiotics, such together penicillinAntidepressants, such together tricyclic antidepressantsBenzodiazepines, known together tranquilizers, such as lorazepam and also diazepamDiuretics, which are medicines, such together furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide, that help your body get rid of fluidHeart medicines, such as amiodarone, hydralazine, methyldopa, and also procainamidePsychiatric medicines, such together clozapine and also lithiumSeizure medicines, such as phenytoinVaccines, which may cause allergic reactions bring about myocarditis, back this is rareWeight-loss medicines, such together phentermine-fenfluramine or phen-fen

Environmental factors

Environmental factors that may reason myocarditis include:

Heavy metals, such as copper and leadRadiation

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You may have actually an raised risk for heart inflammation such together endocarditis, myocarditis, and also pericarditis due to the fact that of your age, sex, genetics, environment, lifestyle, or clinical conditions and also procedures.

Different age groups are at risk for different types of heart inflammation:

Although castle can affect all ages, myocarditis and pericarditis occur much more often in young adults. Pericarditis likewise commonly affects middle-aged adults.Older adults are much more at threat for endocarditis caused by bacteria. In current years, age-related heart valve infections have actually been ~ above the rise.

Heart inflammation native endocarditis, myocarditis, and also pericarditis is an ext common in males than in women, other than when resulted in by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, i beg your pardon are an ext common in women.

Endocarditis and also pericarditis occur twice as regularly in men as in women.

Genetics beat a function in the hazard of developing all three species of love inflammation. Her genes may be partially responsible for how your human body responds come infection and inflammation and also whether you build myocarditis or pericarditis.

People who have structural or congenital heart defects, together as difficulties with the heart valves, might be at higher risk for infection that can cause endocarditis.

Certain inherited conditions can impact your danger for heart inflammation. Because that example, you might be at greater risk because that myocarditis and pericarditis if you have actually familial Mediterranean fever or tumor necrosis variable receptor-associated regular syndrome (TRAPS). These rarely conditions influence how the human body controls inflammation.

Chagas disease, typical in Latin America, can cause acute and also chronic myocarditis. That is brought about by a parasite the is spread out by certain species of insects. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bacteria is more common in less occurred countries.

Certain lifestyle options raise your hazard for endocarditis or myocarditis. These include:

Drinking too lot alcohol, which may reason inflammation of the myocardium and could command to decreased heart function and heart failureDrug usage such as cocaine and amphetamines and intravenous drug use through endocarditisPoor dentist health, which boosts the hazard for bacterial endocarditis

Some medical problems can boost your risk of endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis. These include:

Cancers, together as advanced lung and breast cancer or lymphoma. Drugs used come treat these varieties of cancer can cause myocarditis or pericarditis.Eating disorders such together anorexiaEnd-stage kidney disease, which can result from the buildup that waste assets in the bloodSkin disorders, such as burns or recurrent infectionsTrauma or injury to the chest or esophagus, or indirect injury to the chest wall

Certain clinical procedures deserve to increase your risk of endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis, including:

Central venous line, which is one intravenous catheter the goes into a larger central vein in her bodyHemodialysis because that end-stage kidney disease. Infection may an outcome from accessibility to blood vessels required for hemodialysis. Medical procedures, such as having actually a main venous line, which is one intravenous catheter the goes right into a larger central vein in her body; love ablation for abnormal love rhythm; or treatments for coronary heart diseaseRadiation therapy come treat cancers such as lung and also breast cancer and lymphoma. This may reason myocarditis or pericarditis.Treatments for ischemic love disease

There is no routine screening for endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis. Learn around strategies that may help you avoid endocarditis. If your medical professional suspects endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis, you may undergo tests come diagnose her condition.

Your doctor might recommend measures to protect against bacterial development on the endocardium in civilization who have actually risk components for endocarditis. These steps may decrease your danger of endocarditis.

Avoid using illegal intravenous (IV) drugs.Practice cautious skin hygiene, such as regularly washing her skin and also immediately washing any kind of cuts or scrapes to protect against infection.Practice great dental hygiene, including day-to-day brushing and flossing and regular access time to the dentist.Take antibiotics before some clinical procedures, however only together directed by your doctor.

Many causes of myocarditis and also pericarditis are an overwhelming or difficult to prevent or prevent. Regulating risk determinants for diseases such as HIV and avoiding building material such as amphetamines and cocaine might decrease your hazard for myocarditis.

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- love Inflammation

Signs, Symptoms, and also Complications - heart Inflammation

The signs, symptoms, and complications of love inflammation count on which form of love inflammation friend have. Friend may likewise have various symptoms 보다 other world who have the same type of heart inflammation. Love inflammation can occur suddenly or progression slowly and also may have actually severe symptom or almost no symptoms. If left untreated, complications can incorporate serious arrhythmias, blood clots, or love failure.

If a virus causes your love inflammation, friend may have a cough, runny nose, or gastrointestinal symptoms a few weeks prior to symptoms of her heart inflammation. The signs and also symptoms of love inflammation room different depending on the form of heart inflammation friend have.


Fever and chillsNew or worsening heart murmurBlood in urineSpleen the is bigger than normalAbdominal painChest pains Cough, with or there is no the presence of bloodLoss of appetite and also weight lossMuscle, joint, and ago painNight sweats Pain where one infected cardiac maker is locatedShortness of breathSkin changes, which can take place with endocarditis. These might be painful red or violet bumps, or painless level red spots on places such together the palms of her hands or soles of her feet, or tiny reddish violet spots from broken blood vessels.


Chest pain and also discomfort FaintingShortness the breathAbdominal painExercise intolerance, or no much longer being able to exerciseFeverLoss of appetiteSwelling of feet or foot Weakness


Chest pain. Chest pain indigenous pericarditis generally feels sharp, it s okay worse v breathing, and also feels far better with sitting up and also leaning forward.Fast heartbeatFeverShortness that breath

Complications of heart inflammation vary depending upon the form of love inflammation. Some complications deserve to be life-threatening.


Arrhythmia or heart conduction disordersHeart failure


Arrhythmia or heart conduction disorders


Pericardial effusion, in which liquid collects in the sac about the heartConstrictive pericarditis, in i m sorry scar-like tissue forms through the pericardium. The sac becomes stiff and cannot move properly. The scarred tissue stays clear of the love from filling with blood properly.
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- love Inflammation

Diagnosis - heart Inflammation

Your doctor will diagnose love inflammation such as endocarditis, pericarditis, or myocarditis based upon your clinical history, a physical exam, and diagnostic tests and imaging studies. The reason of the inflammation might remain unknown, i m sorry is regularly the instance with pericarditis.

Because the signs and also symptoms of heart inflammation vary among the three types and native one human to the next, it is sometimes challenging to diagnose endocarditis, pericarditis, or myocarditis. To help, her doctor may ask inquiries such together these:

Have you had endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis in the past?Have you had actually a recent disease or injury come the chest?Have friend had any kind of symptoms, such together fever, chest pain, or shortness the breath?

During the physics exam, her doctor may take this steps:

Check her legs for swelling, a authorize of heart failureCheck your skin for any type of changes, as might be seen in instances of endocarditisCheck your temperature to recognize if you have a feverFeel your stomach, specifically for a spleen the is bigger than normal, or to determine if friend have abdominal muscle pain, which may occur with endocarditisListen to your heart because that a new murmur that may be heard with endocarditis, a pericardial rub that may be heard with pericarditis, or an abnormal love rhythmListen to your lungs

Your doctor may recommend other tests and procedures to diagnose the different varieties of heart inflammation, including:

Heart valve tissue trial and error to recognize the microbes from the love valve or the vegetation that may be causing your endocarditisPericardiocentesis to remove excess liquid in the pericardium, dubbed a pericardial effusion. Your physician will insert a needle or tube, dubbed a catheter, into the chest wall to eliminate this excess fluid. Your physician will look at the liquid for bacteria, signs of cancer, or other causes of pericarditis. Positron emissions tomography (PET) scan or nuclear medicine scan come diagnose endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis. In both varieties of imaging studies, a small amount of a radioactive problem is provided to see where the body takes it up. This may suggest infection, cancer, or other conditions in the places where it shows up on imaging.

Blood test may aid your doctor uncover the cause of her heart inflammation and also may include:

Blood cultures to identify and also treat the exact bacterium, virus, or fungus that is resulting in the infection in endocarditis or pericarditisCardiac troponins or creatine kinase-MB, which room blood mite that boost when there is damage to your heart. Because there are no specific blood tests for myocarditis, this markers are useful to display injury to the heart muscle. However, lock are additionally increased through heart assault or love failure and do not necessarily average you have myocarditis. Castle are often normal in cases of subacute or chronic myocarditis.C-reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which may show inflammation in the human body if higher than normalComplete blood count to look for higher levels that white blood cells, which could indicate infectionSerum cardiac autoantibodies (AAbs), which room antibodies that her body may start to do if you have actually myocarditis. These antibodies identify your own heart muscle.Testing for particular organisms, such together Borrelia burgdorferi, which reasons Lyme disease; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis; HIV; or hepatitis C

Your doctor might order additional tests to uncover out whether one more condition might be causing your symptoms.

- love Inflammation

Treatment - love Inflammation

If you space diagnosed through heart inflammation such together endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis, her doctor might recommend medicine or surgical procedure to treat your condition. Mild cases of myocarditis and also pericarditis might go far without treatment.

Your doctor may prescribe one or more medicines come treat love inflammation, depending upon the form and reason of love inflammation.


Antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. Side effects of antibiotics rely on i beg your pardon antibiotic is used however may encompass diarrhea; problems with hearing, balance, and also kidneys; and decreased white blood cell counts. Few of these side results may not occur until treatment is finished.Blood thinners to treat some species of endocarditis


Heart failure medicines come decrease the occupational of the heart as soon as heart failure is a complication. Her doctor might recommend drugs such as beta blockers and also angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.


Anti-inflammatory medicines come treat pericarditis. These encompass colchicine, aspirin, and also non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and also indomethacin. Side impacts are mainly gastrointestinal and include ab pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.Corticosteroids to lower the task of the body’s immune system. V pericarditis, corticosteroids are offered only in patient who are not responding come or cannot take it NSAIDs.Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to help control the body’s immune and also inflammatory response. This might be used when there is one autoimmune disorder, such together lupus.

Your physician may consider procedures and also surgeries to treat your heart inflammation, including:

Pericardiocentesis to remove excess liquid in the pericardium, called a pericardial effusion

Your doctor might recommend lifestyle changes depending ~ above the cause of your heart inflammation. These recommendations may include:

Avoiding amphetamines, cocaine, or IV drugsMaintaining good dental hygiene
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- heart Inflammation

Living through - love Inflammation

After you are diagnosed with a type of love inflammation, the is essential to follow your treatment plan. Her doctor might recommend extr follow-up care to monitor her treatment and symptoms and also prevent complications and repeat events. Your doctor may do measures to manage complications.

Follow up with your medical professionals as instructed. Your exact follow-up will rely on the cause and also severity of your disease. Ongoing medical treatment may include:

Continuing all therapies as command by your doctorGetting continual check-ups and follow-up tests v your doctorGetting continuous dental visits

Return to therapy to review feasible treatments because that endocarditis, myocarditis, and pericarditis.

Your doctor may recommend the adhering to to monitor her condition and also the efficiency of the treatments:

Cardiac MRI might be repetitive to screen myocarditis.Echocardiography (echo) permits doctors come look at her heart after ~ treatment and have pictures to usage for comparison once monitoring for any changes. This test may be repeated periodically to monitor your heart function.

Make certain you are acquainted with the signs and also symptoms of her condition, such together chest pain, cough, fever, and also shortness the breath. Speak to your doctor with any new symptoms.

Repeat events of heart inflammation have the right to happen. Human being with endocarditis have a lifelong risk. Repeat occasions of pericarditis are typical in the very first 18 month after treatment. People with myocarditis are at risk for a repeat event for year after the an initial occurrence.

To protect against complications, that is essential to take these steps:

Continue all medicines as directed by your doctor, consisting of those for complications such together heart fail or arrhythmias or because that medical conditions that might have contributed to your endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis. Therapy for endocarditis and pericarditis often lasts weeks. You may need to take it some medications throughout your lifetime. If prescribed, lifelong usage of antifungals for fungal endocarditis or colchicine for pericarditis may reduced your hazard of a repeat event.Do no exercise until given permission by your doctor. For myocarditis, this may be number of months or longer after treatment.

Serious complications can include repeat occasions and brand-new or worsening love failure. Tell your doctor if you experience fever or chills, or symptom of love failure, such as shortness that breath, fatigue, or ede in her legs.

Review the symptoms and also complications that the different types of heart inflammation from endocarditis, myocarditis, and also pericarditis.

Depending top top the cause and amount of heart inflammation, you might need treatments to manage complications.

Anti-inflammatory medicines to decrease the possibility of recurrent pericarditis. These include colchicine, aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (NSAIDs), such together ibuprofen and also indomethacin.Implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker to manage irregular heartbeats. Placement of these devices should wait till after the acute illustration of myocarditis, due to the fact that the heart might heal completely.

The is part of the U.S. Room of Health and also Human Services’ national Institutes of health (—the nation’s biomedical research agency that makes necessary scientific discovery to boost health and save lives. We space committed to proceeding science and also translating explorations into clinical exercise to promote the prevention and treatment the heart, lung, blood, and also sleep disorders, consisting of endocarditis, myocarditis, and also pericarditis. Learn about the current and also future initiatives to improve health through research and scientific discovery.

In support of our mission, we space committed to proceeding research top top endocarditis, myocarditis, and pericarditis in component through the adhering to ways. Research on this object is part of the’s wider commitment to progressing heart and vascular condition scientific discovery.

Learn around exciting research areas the is experimenting in endocarditis and also myocarditis.

New techniques to improve the diagnosis that endocarditis. Researchers are looking at brand-new substances the will recognize the bacter Staphylococcus aureus and assist diagnose and also study bacter endocarditis. These brand-new substances will certainly be supplied with a type of computed tomography (CT) imaging, dubbed PET/CT, that will enable researchers to research bacterial endocarditis and also potential treatments.New expertise of myocarditis and also why the progresses to love failure. Myocarditis may bring about heart failure and sometimes call for a heart transplant. Researchers are studying the body’s immune solution to a part of the heart muscle cell that leads to inflammation and heart failure. For this work, researchers hope to recognize genes, pathways, and also other predictors the may suggest when myocarditis will progress to heart failure rather of recovery. This research may lead to brand-new options because that diagnosis and treatment the myocarditis and also heart failure.New understanding of sex distinctions in myocarditis and also its complications. men are an ext likely to endure myocarditis and its complications, consisting of heart failure, than women. In addition, these problems may be much more severe because that men. Researchers room looking in ~ sex differences in the pathways that manage inflammation and heart fail to better understand the different outcomes in men and women.

We lead or sponsor plenty of studies aimed at preventing, diagnosing, and treating heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders.

Learn an ext about participating in a clinical trial.

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